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SaltStack入门篇(五)之salt-ssh的使用以及LAMP状态设计部署

ssh部署状态 设计 以及 入门篇 Lamp 使用
2023-09-27 14:29:14 时间

1、salt-ssh的使用

官方文档:https://docs.saltstack.com/en/2016.11/topics/ssh/index.html

1)安装salt-ssh
[root@linux-node1 ~]# yum install -y salt-ssh2)配置salt-ssh
[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim /etc/salt/roster 
linux-node1:
  host: 192.168.56.11
  user: root
  passwd: 123123
linux-node2:
  host: 192.168.56.12
  user: root
  passwd: 1231233)使用ssh远程执行
[root@linux-node1 ~]# salt-ssh '*' -r 'uptime'
linux-node2:
    ----------
    retcode:
        0
    stderr:
    stdout:
        root@192.168.56.12's password: 
         14:07:19 up 14 days,  8:41,  2 users,  load average: 0.04, 0.08, 0.07
linux-node1:
    ----------
    retcode:
        0
    stderr:
    stdout:
        root@192.168.56.11's password: 
         14:07:20 up 23 days,  8:13,  2 users,  load average: 2.86, 0.81, 0.34

2、配置管理

(1)什么是状态?

States是Saltstack中的配置语言,在日常进行配置管理时需要编写大量的States文件。比如我们需要安装一个包,然后管理一个配置文件,最后保证某个服务正常运行。这里就需要我们编写一些states sls文件(描述状态配置的文件)去描述和实现我们的功能。编写的states sls文件都是YAML语法,states sls文件也支持使用Python语言编写。 
所谓的状态就是希望系统运行某些命令之后的结果。描述状态使用YAML格式的文件。SLS:salt state 
举例安装apache,如下:

[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim /srv/salt/base/web/apache.sls 
apache:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: httpd
  service.running:
    - name: httpd
  file.managed:
    - name: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
    - source: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644

解释说明:
apache:id声明,在所有环境(base、prod)下全局唯一
pkg:状态模块
.:引用关系
installed:模块中的方法
::代表层级关系
name:可以理解为参数,后面跟的是参数值
file.managed:文件管理模块,必须要有source指定文件的来源路径
source:文件的来源路径,salt://代表着环境的根路径,这的根路径为:/srv/salt/base/
user、group、mode:分别指定文件的所属者,所属组和权限

以上的文件还可以使用分id的写法:
apache-install:
  pkg.installed:
    - name: httpd

apache-service:
  service.running:
    - name: httpd

apache-config:
  file.managed:
    - name: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
    - source: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644

存在指定多个配置文件,还可以使用一下写法:(不适用name作为参数传递时,id就是name)
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644
/etc/httpd/conf/php.conf:
  file.managed:
    - source: salt://apache/files/php.conf
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644

(2) LAMP的状态设计与实现部署

1、设计分析

1 名称                  软件包                                  配置文件                 服务
2 使用模块                pkg                                    file                 service
3 LAMP    httpd、php、mariadb、mariadb-server、php-mysql、php-pdo、php-cli    /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf、/etc/php.ini    httpd、mysqld

2、Aapche的状态配置

 1 [root@linux-node1 prod]# pwd
 2 /srv/salt/prod
 3 [root@linux-node1 prod]# mkdir apache php mysql
 4 [root@linux-node1 prod]# tree 
 5 .
 6 ├── apache
 7 ├── mysql
 8 └── php
 9 
10 3 directories, 0 files
11 
12 [root@linux-node1 prod]# cd apache/
13 [root@linux-node1 apache]# vim apache.sls      #编写apache的状态模块
14 apache-install:
15   pkg.installed:
16     - name: httpd
17 
18 apache-config:
19   file.managed:
20     - name: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
21     - source: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf    #salt://代表着环境的根路径
22     - user: root
23     - group: root
24     - mode: 644
25 
26 apache-service:
27   service.running:
28     - name: httpd
29     - enable: True
30 [root@linux-node1 apache]# mkdir files    #创建source目录
31 [root@linux-node1 apache]# cd files/
32 [root@linux-node1 files]# cp /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf .
33 [root@linux-node1 apache]# tree 
34 .
35 ├── apache.sls
36 └── files
37     └── httpd.conf
38 
39 1 directory, 2 files
40 [root@linux-node1 apache]# salt 'linux-node1' state.sls apache.apache saltenv=prod

3、php的状态配置

[root@linux-node1 prod]# cd php
[root@linux-node1 php]# mkdir files
[root@linux-node1 php]# vim init.sls
php-install:
  pkg.installed:
    - pkgs:
      - php
      - php-pdo
      - php-mysql

php-config:
  file.managed:
    - name: /etc/php.ini
    - source: salt://php/files/php.ini
    - user: root
    - group: root
    - mode: 644
[root@linux-node1 php]# cp /etc/php.ini files/
[root@linux-node1 php]# tree 
.
├── files
│   └── php.ini
└── init.sls

1 directory, 2 files

4、mysql的状态配置

[root@linux-node1 prod]# cd mysql/
[root@linux-node1 mysql]# vim init.sls
mysql-install:
  pkg.installed:
    - pkgs:
      - mariadb
      - mariadb-server

mysql-config:
  file.managed:
    - name: /etc/my.cnf
    - source: salt://mysql/files/my.cnf
    - user: root
    - gourp: root
    - mode: 644

mysql-service:
  service.running:
    - name: mariadb-server
    - enable: True
[root@linux-node1 mysql]# mkdir files
[root@linux-node1 mysql]# cp /etc/my.cnf files/
[root@linux-node1 prod]# tree 
.
├── apache
│   ├── files
│   │   └── httpd.conf
│   └── init.sls
├── mysql
│   ├── files
│   │   └── my.cnf
│   └── init.sls
└── php
    ├── files
    │   └── php.ini
    └── init.sls
[root@linux-node1 prod]# salt -S '192.168.56.11' state.sls php.init saltenv=prod
linux-node1.example.com:
----------
          ID: php-install
    Function: pkg.installed
      Result: True
     Comment: The following packages were installed/updated: php-mysql
              The following packages were already installed: php-pdo, php
     Started: 10:30:14.780998
    Duration: 118711.436 ms
     Changes:   
              ----------
              php-mysql:
                  ----------
                  new:
                      5.4.16-43.el7_4
                  old:
----------
          ID: php-config
    Function: file.managed
        Name: /etc/php.ini
      Result: True
     Comment: File /etc/php.ini is in the correct state
     Started: 10:32:13.556562
    Duration: 51.913 ms
     Changes:   

Summary for linux-node1.example.com
------------
Succeeded: 2 (changed=1)
Failed:    0
------------
Total states run:     2
Total run time: 118.763 s
View Code

5、写入top file,执行高级状态

[root@linux-node1 base]# pwd
/srv/salt/base
[root@linux-node1 base]# vim top.sls 
prod:
  'linux-node1.example.com':
   - apache.init
   - php.init
   - mysql.init
[root@linux-node1 base]# salt 'linux-node1*' state.highstate
linux-node1.example.com:
----------
          ID: apache-install
    Function: pkg.installed
        Name: httpd
      Result: True
     Comment: All specified packages are already installed
     Started: 10:39:04.214911
    Duration: 762.144 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: apache-config
    Function: file.managed
        Name: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
      Result: True
     Comment: File /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf is in the correct state
     Started: 10:39:04.979376
    Duration: 13.105 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: apache-service
    Function: service.running
        Name: httpd
      Result: True
     Comment: The service httpd is already running
     Started: 10:39:04.992962
    Duration: 36.109 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: php-install
    Function: pkg.installed
      Result: True
     Comment: All specified packages are already installed
     Started: 10:39:05.029241
    Duration: 0.65 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: php-config
    Function: file.managed
        Name: /etc/php.ini
      Result: True
     Comment: File /etc/php.ini is in the correct state
     Started: 10:39:05.029987
    Duration: 10.642 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: mysql-install
    Function: pkg.installed
      Result: True
     Comment: All specified packages are already installed
     Started: 10:39:05.040793
    Duration: 0.422 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: mysql-config
    Function: file.managed
        Name: /etc/my.cnf
      Result: True
     Comment: File /etc/my.cnf is in the correct state
     Started: 10:39:05.041301
    Duration: 7.869 ms
     Changes:   
----------
          ID: mysql-service
    Function: service.running
        Name: mariadb
      Result: True
     Comment: The service mariadb is already running
     Started: 10:39:05.049284
    Duration: 28.054 ms
     Changes:   

Summary for linux-node1.example.com
------------
Succeeded: 8
Failed:    0
------------
Total states run:     8
Total run time: 858.995 ms   
View Code